The prostate is a small gland in males reproductive system, which is about the size of a walnut, surrounding the urethra. It became bigger as the age advance. The prostate produces a thick white fluid when that mixes with the sperm to make semen. And also produces a protein called prostate – specific antigen which turns the semen into liquid form. The growth of cells and the functioning of prostate gland depend on the male sex hormone testosterone.
Prostate cancer is a condition in which the cells in the prostate gland grow uncontrollably and obstruct the functions of other internal organs. Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed non-cutaneous cancer in men. The incidence rate – one in seven men will get prostate cancer in his lifetime. And it is the second most cause of death in man. Nearly 181,000 men are diagnosed with prostate cancer this year, Above 50 yrs of age, each man should suspect of Prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer can occur due to many causes but the risk factors should be given importance in DIAGNOSING the condition are
- Are you older than 50 yrs?
- Anybody in your family diagnosed with prostate cancer before age of 65?
- Do you eat a lot of red meat or high-fat dairy products?
- Are you overweight?
- Any hormonal imbalance?
When you have to think of Diagnostic test ???
The most common symptoms of prostate cancer are
- Painful urination.
- Burning sensation or pain during urination.
- Loss of bladder control.
- Decreased flow of urine stream.
- Erectile dysfunction.
- Painful ejaculation.
- Trouble in urinating or having to rush to the toilet to pass urine.
- More frequent urges of passing urine more than usual, especially at night.
- Swelling of legs and lower extremities.
- Pain in the bones.
- Difficulty in passing urine, including straining to pass it or stopping and starting.
- A sense of not being able to completely empty the bladder.
- Pelvic and perineal discomfort.
Early identification of symptoms will help to DIAGNOSE THE PROSTATE CANCER at the initial stage. To assist in diagnosis along with signs and symptoms some diagnostic tests to be done.The tests include
An elevated level of PSA.The normal range is less than 4.0 ng/mL.
A transrectal USG
USG scanning of the prostate is done.
A tissue from the enlarged prostate is taken for the cytological examinations.
Magnetic resonance image of the prostate is taken.
If there is any delay in DIAGNOSES it will lead to the COMPLICATIONS like
- Urinary tract infection,
- Acute urinary retention.
- Suddenly not being able to urinate at all.
- Severe lower abdominal pain.
- Swelling of the bladder and can feel with your hands.
Treatment options are
- Watchful Waiting
- External beam radiation therapy
- Proton Therapy
Advantages of early detection of Prostate Cancer
- Early detection helps to minimise the risk.
- It helps to diagnose the disease at the preliminary period.
- Increase the prognosis.
- Helps the individual and family to cope with the diagnosis.
- Helps to educate and support the patient.
- Helps to prevent metastasis.
- Make a treatment plan for the patient chemotherapy, surgical procedure and radiation therapy.
- Helps to evaluate the patient conditions.
- Reduce the complications.
- Plan for rehabilitation.
BPH is a common condition associated with ageing. The choice of the appropriate treatment is based on the severity of the symptoms, and the precision in diagnostic testing.For proper confirmation appropriate diagnostic tests to be selected and done at the earliest.