Anemia is a fatal condition which needs early diagnosis. It can affect both sex irrespective of age commonly affect women in their reproductive age, between the age of 13 – 50. About 55% in females compared to men (24%) and in pregnant women it is about 59%.
Anemia is a condition in which deficiency in the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood due to reduction in hemoglobin content or decrease in size of red blood cells due to various reason. The main causes of anemia are deficiency in dietary iron intake, decreased absorption of iron, severe blood loss, any chronic disease or malfunction in the bone marrow leads to impairment in RBC production, pregnancy and lactation. The normal range of hemoglobin in a healthy person is between 11 – 15 g/dl, and any level lower than 11 g/dl leads to anemia.
The population at the risk for anemia is women, commonly at age of child bearing, pregnant women, those who with poor nutritional status and children, some person who are on aspirin treatment or on other long term medications, old people, with low socio economic status people, multiparty and females with menstrual problems.
A wide variety of diagnostic tests are available to identify the cause of symptoms. The diagnostic test are usually convenient, effective and without any side effects. So anyone can do a diagnostic investigation without doubt based on the medical necessity.
The symptoms which needs diagnose are pale skin and gum, sever fatigue and weakness, irregular heartbeat, loss of appetite, cold and clammy hand and foot, brittle nails, leg cramps and dizziness.
The importance of early detection of anemia is to avoid complications such as delayed growth in infant and pregnancy complications.
The diagnosis helps in differentiate the anemia the different types are
Iron Deficiency Anemia
Due to excessive loss of iron because of dietary deficiency or in pregnant women due to growth of fetus.
Less intake of vitamin B12 or any abnormality in RBC production.
Inability of intestine to absorb vitamin B12 .
Due to excessive loss of blood, in case of stomach ulcers, menstruation.
Less synthesis of HB.
Sickle Cell Anemia
Heredity disorder characterized by abnormal shape in RBC rigid, sickle cell.
The diagnostic tests play the key role in determining the medical condition, most of the test used in diagnosis of anemia are non invasive, and require only a sample of blood. The tests usually done to diagnose anemia are
- Hemoglobin estimation
- Complete blood count
- Peripheral Blood Smear Examination
- Red Cell Indices
- Leukocyte And Platelet Count
- Bone Marrow Examination
- Reticulocyte Count
- Ferritin Level
- Serum Iron
- Serum Transferrin
- Percentage Saturation Of Transferrin
Diagnose can help in effective management before the condition getting worsen by determining the cause of disease, normalizing the level of HB by modifying the life style and non-pharmacological measures.
- Anthelmintic Therapy
- Iron and folic acid supplementation
- Blood transfusion
- Bone marrow transplantation
Treating underlying cause is the most efficient management option in curing anemia. So diagnostics test play a vital role in separating anemia from any chronic disorder. The preventive measures involve adequate intake of iron rich and green leafy food. Early detection of blood disorder with diagnostic investigation.